A new original electroosmotic hydrogen generator is put forward. It contains a hollow chamber with water, electrodes located in water, source of electric power connected to them. Source of electric power is supplemented with capillaries located vertically in water. Their upper edges are above the level of water, at that electrodes are made flat. One of electrodes is located under capillaries and second electrode is made netlike and is located over capillaries, at this source of electric power is high-voltage and adjustable by amplitude and frequency, at this the gap between ends of capillaries and second electrode and parameters of electric power fed to electrodes are chosen with the aim of ensuring maximum efficiency for produced hydrogen. Regulator of productivity is regulator of voltage of the above said source and regulator of gap between capillaries and second electrodes.
Is related to heat-and-power engineering and in particular to hydrogen energetics and can be used for recovery of hydrogen during burning of which it is possible to obtain a lot of heat energy from the inner chemical energy of water by way of low=cost dissociation of water into Н2 и О2.
Method and devices of direct electrochemical decomposition (dissociation) of water and water solutions into hydrogen and oxygen by transmitting electric current through water are well known. Their major advantage is simplicity of implementation. Main drawbacks of the device-prototype – hydrogen generator- are: low productivity, considerable energy consumption and low coefficient of efficiency. Theoretical calculation of required electric power necessary for recovery of 1 cubic meter of hydrogen from water amounts to 2, 94 kWt/hour. This hinders for the time being using this method for recovery of ecologically clean fuel for transport.
The most close device (prototype) by construction and application to the claimed utility model is by combination of factors hydrogen generator consisting of hollow chamber with water, electrodes, located in water, connected to them source of electric power.
Essence of work of prototype – known as hydrogen generator - consists in electrolytic dissociation of water under influence of electric current into Н2 and О2 .
Drawback of prototype: low energy efficiency of the device.
Aim of this invention: improvement of the existing device with the aim of improvement its energy efficiency.
Technical result of this utility model consists in technical and energy improvement of the known device.
This technical result is achieved by the following: known device consisting of hollow chamber with water, electrodes located in water, connected to them source of electric power, is supplemented with capillaries located vertically in water, with upper edges above the level of water, at this electrodes are made flat, one of them is located under capillaries and second electrode is netlike and is located above capillaries. At this the source of electric power is high-voltage and adjustable by amplitude and frequency, at this the gap between edges of capillaries and second electrode and parameters of electric power fed to the electrodes are chosen according to the condition of ensuring maximum productivity of hydrogen, at this regulators of productivity are regulator of voltage of the above mentioned source and regulator of gap between capillaries and second electrode.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICE IN STATIC MODE
Device for recovery of hydrogen from water (fig.1) consists of dielectric container 1 with fluid 2 (water0fuel emulsion or simple water), of finely porous capillary material, for example, of fiber wick 3, submerged into this liquid and preliminary wetted in it; of upper evaporator 4 in the form of capillary evaporating surface with variable area in the form of impermeable screen (is not shown on the Fig.).
This device comprises also high-voltage electrodes 5,5-1,эelectrically connected to opposite outputs of high-voltage controlled source of direct electric field 6, and at this one of electrodes 5 is done in form of perforated-needleshaped plate and is located movably above the evaporator 4, for example parallel to it at a distance, sufficient for preventing voltage failure onto the wet wick 3, which is mechanically connected with evaporator 4.
Another high-voltage electrode (5-1), electrically connected to the output, for example, to the “+” output of the source of field 6, with its output is mechanically and electrically connected to the lower end of porous material, wick 3 nearly on the bottom of the vessel 1. For reliable electrical insulation the electrode is protected from the casing of the vessel 1 with a bushing insulator 5-2. It should be pointed out that vector of voltage of electric field strength fed to the wick 3 from block 6 is directed along the axis of wick- evaporator 3. The device is supplemented also with gas collector 7.
In its essence, device composed of blocks 3, 4, 5, 6, is a combined device of electroosmosis pump and electrostatic evaporator of liquid 2 from the vessel 1.. Block 6 allows to adjust strength of direct (“+”,”-“) electric field from 0 up to 30 kW/sm. Electrode 5 is made perforated or porous for possible letting through of formed steam.
In the device (Fig.1) there is envisaged also technical possibility to change distances and locations of electrode 5 in relation to the surface of the evaporator 4. In principle for creation of required strength of electric field it is possible to use polymer mono electrets instead of electric block 6 and electrode 5.
For this purpose electrodes 5 и 5-1 are made in the form of mono electrets having opposite electric signs. Then in case of application of such devices-electrodes 5 and their positioning as it was shown above there is no need in a special electric block 6.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICE AND ITS WORK (РИС.1)
First water or water-fuel mix (emulsion) 2 is poured into the vessel 1, wet with it the wick 3 and porous evaporator 4. Then high-voltage source 6 is switched on and high-voltage difference of potentials is fed onto the system (filter 3 – evaporator 4) through the electrodes 5-1 and 5, at this flat perforated electrode 5 is located above the surface of evaporator 4 at a distance sufficient for preventing voltage failure between electrodes 5 and 5-1. As a result dipole polarized molecules of liquid move from the vessel in direction of opposite electric potential of electrode 5 along capillaries wick 3 and evaporator 3 and evaporator 4 under the influence of electrostatic forces of longitudinal electric field (electroosmosis(, are torn off by these electric forces of the field from the surface of the evaporator 4 and turn into steam (fog), i.e liquid turns into other aggregative state under minimal energy consumption from the source of electric field (6) and by them electroosmotic rising of this liquid starts.
In the process of tearing off and collision of evaporated molecukes of liquid with molecules of air and ozone, electrons in the area of ionization between evaporator 4 and upper electrode 5 partial dissociation takes place with forming of combustible gas.
Then this gas is delivered through gas collector 7 , for example into combustion chambers of automobile engines/ Composition of this combustion gas^ molecules of hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2), organic molecules of fuel. It is experimentally proven that intensity of the evaporation process and dissociation of molecules of steam change depending upon the distance of electrode 5 from the evaporator 4, upon change of the evaporator area, upon the type of liquid, quality of capillary material of the wick 3 and evaporator 4 and parameters of electric field from the source 6 (strength, intensity).